INVENTIONS & DISCOVERIES
Pioneers in Science
Anderson—Discovered positive electrons.
Inventions and discoveries in Physics and Chemistry
Archimedes—Discovery of the Principles of lever and of specific gravity; invention of the famous Archimedean screw.
Avogadro—An Italian scientist known for Avogadro’s Hypothesis.
Bacquerel—Radio-activity of uranium.
Benjamin Franklin—Invented lightning conductor.
Bessemer—Steel smelting process.
Bhabha, Dr H.J.—Research in Cosmic rays and Quantum theory.
Birbal Sahni—Researches in Botany.
Bose, J.C.—Invented Crescograph and published many works on plant physiology. He discovered that plants have sense and perception.
Bose, S.N.—Discovery of a group of nuclear particles named after him “Boson”.
Boyle—Boyle’s law; Pressure x volume = constant at a constant given temperature. Boyle was the greatest scientist of England in his time.
Bohr—Electron Theory—Atomic structure.
Braun, Dr Wernher von—space flying.
Bunsen—Invention of the spectroscope.
Cavendish—Discovery of chemical composition of water; discovery of hydrogen (Inflammable Air); ‘rare gases’.
Chadwick—Discovery of the neutron.
Charles Darwin—Theory of Evolution; Origin of Species.
Clarke, Arthur C.—Concept of Geostationary Orbit.
Curie, Madame—Discovery of radium.
Dalton—Atomic theory; laws of chemical combination; law of partial pressures; the law of multiple proportions.
Democritus—Greek philosopher—(Atomic theory).
Dewar—Invented cordite, liquid oxygen and introduced thermos flask.
Einstein—Theory of relativity.
Euclid—Science of geometry.
Fahrenheit—Fahrenheit mercury thermometric scale in which freezing point is –32° and boiling point is 212°.
Faraday—Electromagnetic induction and laws of electrolysis.
Fermi—Discovered artificial splitting of atoms.
Freud—Doctrine of Psycho-analysis.
Gay Lussac—Law of gases.
Gauss—System of absolute electric measurements.
Good Year—Discovered the art of vulcanising rubber.
Herschel, William—Discovered the Planet—Uranus.
Hippalus—Founder of scientific astronomy.
Hoffmann—Discovered the first aniline dye.
Kelvin, Lord—Dynamical theory of heat.
Khorana, Dr Hargobind—Deciphering the genetic code.
Kodak—Film and photographic goods.
Lablanc—Manufacture of washing soda.
Lawrence—Invention of cyclotron.
Louis Braille—Perfected his system of reading and writing for the blind.
Marconi—Wireless telegraphy; radio.
Maria-Montessori—‘Montessori’ method of teaching children.
Maxwell—Electro-magnetic Theory of Light.
Meghnad Saha—Effect of pressure on Radiation through bodies.
Mendel—Laws of heredity.
Morse—Morse system of electric telegraphy.
Newton—Laws of gravitation; Law of Motion.
Oliver Lodge—Physicist. Researches in wireless communications.
Oppenheimer—Researches in atomic theory.
Otto Hahn—Discovery of uranium fission.
Pavlov—Theory of Conditioned Reflex.
Pitman—Founded the Pitman system of phonographic shorthand.
Plimsoll—Introduced a line of demarcation on the ships beyond which the ships cannot be loaded.
Priestley—Discovery of Oxygen.
Raman, C.V.—“Raman Effect” on polarisation of light and theories on crystals and diamond formation.
Ramanathan—Molecular scattering of light in fluids.
Ramanujam—A great Indian mathematician.
Ramsay—Discovery of Inert gases such as Argon, Neon, Helium etc.
Ray, P.C.—Researches in chemistry.
Regnault—Experiments in regard to the physical properties of bodies and their relation to heat.
Roger Bacon—Gun powder.
Rontgen—Discovery of X-rays.
Rutherford—Atomic Research; succeeded in splitting the atom for the first time in 1918.
Stephenson—British engineer and pioneer in Railways. He was the first to put a locomotive on the line that was able to draw a train of 31 carriages.
Thomson, J.J.—Discovered electron.
Travers—Discovery of Neon gas (Working with Ramsay).
Urey—Discovery of Heavy Hydrogen.
Volta—Current electricity and electric battery.
Pioneers in Mechanical Inventions and Discoveries
Davy—Miner’s Safety Lamp.
Diesel—Internal Combustion engine (Diesel engine).
Edison—First electric bulb and gramophone.
Fick—Law of Diffusion—Fick’s Law.
Frank Whittle—Jet propulsion.
Guttenburg—Art of Printing.
Hoe—Rotary Printing Press.
James Watt—Steam engine (patented in 1769).
Landstrom, J.E.—Safety Matches.
Mauser—Magazine of rifle.
Mercator—Celestial and a terrestrial globe.
Puckle, James—Machine gun
Watt, Robert Watson—Radar.
W. & O. Wright (Wright Brothers)—Aeroplane (1903).
Banting—Insulin (as a palliative for diabetes).
Medical Inventions and Discoveries
Barnard, Christian—Replacing the human heart.
Brahmchari, U.M.—Cure of Kala-a-zar fever.
Davy—Isolation of metals by electricity; studied properties of chlorine.
Domagk—Sulpha drugs as bactericides.
Eijkman—Cause of Beri-Beri.
Finsen—Discovered curative effect of ultra violet rays; photography.
Fleming, Alexander—Penicillin (in 1929).
Harvey—Circulation of blood.
Hopkins, Frederick Gowland—Vitamin D.
Lister, Lord—Antiseptic treatment.
Pasteur, Louis—Treatment of rabies; cure of hydrophobia.
Ronald Ross—Malaria Parasite.
Salk, Jonas E.—Anti-polio Vaccine.
Simpson and Harrison—Chloroform.